The Hurtigruten, which translates from Norwegian to ‘Express Route’, is sometimes known in English as the Norwegian Coastal Express, is a Norwegian cruise, ferry, and cargo operting company. The company was founded in 1893 to operate voyages along the west coast of Norway from Bergen up to Norway’s northern coast, stopping at Kirkenes. The Hurtigruten ships sail almost the entire length of the country, apart from the south coast, crossing into the artic circle approximately half-way through the cruise. The entire journey time for a return cruise is 11 days, although sometimes extended stops are made at certain places.
The trip is regularly touted as one of the most senic sea voyages in the world, as the cruise passes many fjords and during winter months it is common for passengers to be able to see the northern lights during the more northern parts of the cruise.
Despite being a relatively small cruise operator compared to a number of its competitors, the company alone makes up for approximately 2% of the worldwide cruise market, this had led to long waiting times for tickets to be available during some of the busier holidays seasons, particularly during winter with passengers are hoping to be able to see the northern lights.
Due to the ongoing sucess of the company, they have expanded into waters other than Norway and have begun to operate cruises in Greenland, Canada, Smouth America, Iceland, Svalbard, and Antartica, although it is not believed that these trips are as successful as the cruise along the Nowegian coast.
The company was established by the government in order to improve communications along Norway’s coast, with one of the more notable improvement being that mail from central Norway to Hammerfest which previously used to take five months in winter, could be delivered in just seven days.
The history of cruise ships is varied as it is difficult to pinpoint an exact time in history that saw ships become exclusively used for cruises, given that many ships served multiple purposes throughout history. Throughout maritime history, any ship that had allowed passengers could have been classified as a cruise ship, provided that the passenger’s aim was not to travel to a specific destination but rather simply to be onboard the ship as it travelled.
The first company that was incorporated with the specific goal of creating cruise voyages was the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company, which was founded in 1822. The company first began as a shipping line that serviced routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, eventually winning contracts for expanding their business, including winning a contact to deliver mail in 1837. The company introduced their first passenger cruising services in 1844 and advertised sea tours to customers that included destinations around Europe, such as Gibraltar, Malta, and Athens, with all cruises departing from Southampton. Although they did not operate under the same specifications as modern cruises, the voyages were unique at that time and it was not until many years later that the company found themselves with any real competition. The company have continued to expand their list of destinations through to today and have been highly successful at expanding the maritime industry as a whole, contributing to the development of shipyards and ensuring long-lasting careers in the maritime industry.
The development of commercial airlines changed the fate of cruises as it was far more efficient, and in many cases cheaper, to travel by air than over the sea. This caused the cruise industry to have to change their tactics and offer cruises for the sake of cruises, with the goal of a holiday to spend time on a ship, rather than simply travel to a specific destination. This also changed the design of ships used for cruises as they suddenly found they had to incorporate large entertainment spaces, as well as kitchens that were able to offer higher quality meals. Today it is not uncommon for large cruise ships to have multiple swimming pools, with some of the larger ships even having their own waterparks on board the ship, alongside numerous other facilities.
The USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, is a wooden ship that has three masts and is a heavy frigate of the United States Navy, originally named by President George Washington after the Constitution of the United States. The Constitution is the oldest commissioned naval vessel in world that is still afloat.
The ship was one of sex frigates that were ordered for construction by the Naval Act of 1794, and the third to be constructed. The ships were designed by Joshua Humphreys to be the young Navy’s capital ships, so the ships were designed to be both larger and more heavily armed than the standard frigates of that period. The ship was built at the Edmund Hartt shipyard, which was situated in the North End of Boston, Massachusetts. The first offical duty of the ship was to provide protection to American ships during the war with France, with the second duty being to defeat the Barbary pirates in the First Barbary War. Both of which were considered by naval historians to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ship and the viability of building larger ships in order to secure better naval prowess.
US company Princess Cruises was established in 1965 and is headquartered in Santa Clarita, California. The company currently operates 17 ships which cruise across the world and targets both American and international passengers.
The company is typically best known for its role in The Love Boat TV series, in which one of the company’s ships, the Pacific Princess, was featured.
The company was founded when Stanley McDonald decided to charter the Canadian Pacific Limited’s Alaska cruise ship, the Princess Patricia, for use in cruises along the Mexican Riviera, departing from Los Angeles, at a time when the ship would usually not have been in use during the winter months. The first cruise was not necessarily a success, as the ship had not been designed for use in tropical climates and had no air-conditioning on board, which was not a problem when the ship was being used in colder northern climates. The ship was replaced by a purpose-built ship that was called Italia. The second cruise line the company operated was ultimately unsuccessful and led to the ship being return to Europe under charter to the Costa Cruise Line, although the company now outright own their own ships.
Taking a few days off your regular duties is worthwhile. It becomes more exciting if you have something fun planned. Most people go for holidays in their favourite destinations, while others choose to stay indoors with their loved ones. Assuming you decide to enjoy your vacation on the water by taking a few days’ boat trip, you need to plan accordingly. This is regardless of whether you are making the trip alone or as a team. The following are some of the things you should consider before starting your journey to make it enjoyable.
Plan for the Your Trip
It is essential to plan for the trip before you set off. For instance, you should know your route, your destination, your activities, and where you will be sleeping, as well as where you will be eating. Also, make sure there is enough room to anchor in the places you will stop on the way and even at your destination. If you need to stop for refueling, plan accordingly to make sure the stations are within the range of your fuel tank mileage. It is always important to make reservations in the places you will spend your nights. This will avoid frustration at the last minute if the hotels are fully booked.
Stock Up on Essentials
It is important to make sure you have all the essentials before leaving for a boat trip. Although some of them might be available at your destination and along the way, it is always good to have them in your boat. The best way of ensuring you packed all essentials is by preparing a checklist and ticking items off as you pack. Some of the essentials you need are life jackets (enough for everybody onboard), safety kits with restocked items, a torch, and enough food and water. Also, carry enough warm clothes, Tamaris Shoes and raincoats, because weather changes are not very predictable.
Make Sure Your Boat is in Good Condition
Make sure your boat is in good condition for the trip. Start with a full fuel tank and carry extra fluid because they can help you on the way. It is also essential to bring a spare anchor just in case you lose one on the trip. Again, even if you have electronic gadgets to help you with directions, always carry a paper chart. Still, do not ignore anything strange in your boat. It could be an indication of a bigger problem. Lastly, make sure you double-check everything before you start your trip. Ensure the fluids and batteries are at the right level.
If you are done with your checklist and ready to leave, remember why you are going. Go out there and have fun.
The Poseidon Expeditions company was founded in 1999 as a tour operator that specialised in expedition crurises to the Russian High Arctic and the North Pole. Although not intended as a passenger ships, due to the harsh climates that passengers would have to pass through, it is still technically counted as a cruise line. The company uses icebreakers and ice-strengthened ships to be able to break through the thick ice that surrounds the northern arctic circle. In order for a ship to be able to break through such thick ice it must be able to produce a substantial amount of power. It is for this reason that the ships are typically powered by nuclear engines, with the company specifically using the Russian icebreaker called 50 Years of Victory. The ship is equipped with helicopters and inflatable boats, allowing travelers to explore some of the wilder Arctic areas that would normally only be accessible via land expeditions. The ship also holds the record for being the largest ship in the world, in part because of the necessity of being large enough to hold a nuclear engine, as well as the specialist crew required ot maintain such an engine.
Naval technology and warships have been a part of warfare for centuries, with some of the first instances of ships used for combat starting in ancient Mesopotamia. Although the early warships would not be recognisable as such when compared to modern ships, there were highly effective at the time and gave any empire an advantage over their enemy if they could not defend their territorial waters.
During the Ancient Greek and Roman empires, all warships were galleys, which were long, narrow vessels powered by rows of oarsmen. The ships were typically designed to ram into other vessels in order to attempt to sink them, although bow technology was deployed on a number of them. When catapult technology was developed during the 4th century B.C., it was soon adapted for use on boats, allowing for the targetting of both other vessels as well as land-based targets. This had the knock-on effect of reducing the viability of ramming, as any vessel coming in close would make for a far easier target for enemy catapult fire.
Naval warfare began to change again in Europe during the 14th century with cannons first being added to ship’s arsenals, although due to their difficult to reload, aim, and fire, they were not as popular on ships until later centuries. The addition of cannons on a ship greatly increased the weight of the ship, although this was not a problem in terms of the ships ability to stay afloat, it did make propulsion using oarsmen impossible, leading to warships making exclusing use of sails for propulsion.
The middle of the 17th century saw the design for warships begin to stabalise across Europe, with certain standard features being expected during construction. Warships began to store increasing numbers of cannons across a ship’s broadsides, necessitating the invention of different tactics that could accommodate the limitations of a ship’s cannons.
The 19th century again saw a revolution in the design of ships as steam power began to be implemented as a method of propulsion for vessels. At first, due to the cost and difficult in constructing steam ships, they were generally only used as reserve ships that were designed to give support to a main fleet, rather than lead the fleet. As production methods advanced this soon changed, and steam-powered ships were the most common warships for decades until the invention and implementation of the internal combustion engine on boats.
One of the oldest human activities that we are aware of is fishing, with specialised fishing vessels being used for almost all commercial fishing that currently takes place around the world. Although any boat can be used for fishing, catching greater amounts of fish typically requires larger boats that are suitable for carring heavy amounts of cargo. There are an estimated 4.6 million commercial fishing vessels around the world, with 75% of them estimated to be in Asia along. Although attempts have been made to calculate the number of non-commercial fishing vessels, due to the nature of smaller boats to be able to be used for numerous purposes, it has been impossible to even obtain a rough estimate of how many boats are used primarily for fishing in a non-commercial context.
Some of the earliest fishing vessels were little more than rafts or canoes, many of which would likely never have been designed for use in open ocean, but rather for lakes and rivers in-land, with many canoes having been designed for use in slim jungle rivers. These early boats were almost exclusively made from wood and covered in bark or animal hide to create a water-resistant coating for the craft. Some of the earliest archaeological boat finds have been dated back to the Neolithic preiod of around 7,000 – 9,000 years ago.
Boat technologies have typically evolved in tandem with one another, with the technology for fishing vessels being developed at roughly the same rate as technology for boats used in war or exploration all progressing at the same pace. It is unknown when the first sails began to be used in boat construction, but it likely pre-dates the invention of textiles, with some of the earliest boat sails being constructed entirely out of animal skin.
The Ancient Egyptians were one of the first civilisations to make use of the boats as a major part of their economy. Around 4,000 B.C. the Egyptians were building narrow boats there were designed to be rowed by several oarsmen. They continued to develop boat technology and made a number of advances to boat design that rapidly spread around both the Egyptian empire and the world at large. With the invention of cotton, the Egyptians were able to create sails that reduced the need for oarsmen in many circumstances, although many were still needed. These early sail-boats were large enough and sturdy enough to be able to cross oceans and were extensively used for trading purposes.
The vikings made a number of advances in boat construction and were one of the first peoples to began to make use of metal during boat construction, this allowed their boats to be far more durable and less prone to damage when striking ground.
The USS Arizona was a Pennsylvania-class battleship that was designed for use by the United States Navy during the early 1900s. The ship was named after the 48th state, Arizona, that had recently been admitted into the union. The ship was one of the two Pennsylvania class of battleships that were described as ‘super-deadnought’.
The ship was originally comissioned in 1916 but saw no action during World War I and remained in the United States. Between World War I and World War II, the ship was primarily used for transporting American officals around the world and for use in training exercises. The ship also saw use as an aid ship during the 1933 earthquake in Long Beach, California.
The ship’s fate was sealed during the attack on Pearl Harbor on the 7th of December 1941, when the ship was hit by a bomb that detonated in a powder magazine, causing the ship to violently explode. In total there was a loss of life totaling 1,177 officers and crewmen. The wreck of the ship still lise at the bottom of Pearl Harbour and has a memorial building built over the top side of the hull.
The Santa Maria, full name: La Santa Maria de la Inmaculada Concepcion, which roughly translates into: The Holy Mary of the Immaculate Conception, was the largest of all three ships that were used by Christopher Columbus when he took his first voyage across the Atlantic ocean in 1942, the master and owner of the ship was Juan de la Cosa.
Built in Pontevedra, Galicia, in the North-West of Spain, the ship is theorised to have been a medium-sized carrack, being approximately 18 meters long, with historian Juan Escalante de Mendoza stating in 1575 that the ship weight approximately 100 tons. The other ships that Columbus bought with on his expidetion were smaller caravel-type ships. The voyage was not particularly well funded and all of the ships were at least second-hand, with some speculation by historians that they may even have been third-hand. The ships were not designed properly for exploration and were designed as modestly sized merchant vessels. Unfortunately the exact dimensions of the ships have been lost to time, but some anecdotal accounts from the voyage do remain. Historians have put those accounts together with ship wrecks from the same time period in order to obtain rough dimensions for the ships.
The Santa Maria had three masts, making it the slowest of the three ships during Columbus’ expedition, but this helped it fare well on the Atlantic ocean. The initial crossing went well, but the return crossing was when disaster struck. Columbus had decided to sleep, as he had not done so in at least two days, leaving his steersman in charge of the ship. Given that the night’s weather happened to be particularly calm, the steersman decided to allow a cabin boy to steer the ship, a practice that Columbus would never have allowed had he been awake. The cabin boy’s lack of experience at the helm, the ship ultimately was carried onto a sandbank and ran aground on a site near Haiti. The ship proved to be unrepairable and sank the next day, with Columbus ordering the ship stripped of timber in order for a fort to be built. The exact wreckage for the ship has never been fround, although a number of dive teams have attempted to do so. The closest that any team has come so far was on the 13th of May in 2014, when underwater archaeological explorer Barry Clifford claimed that his team had found the original wreck of the Santa Maria. The claim was studied in great detail by UNCESCO, but in the following October, UNESCO published a report stating that the ship cannot have belonged to Columbus. This was due to fastenings that had been used in the hull of that particular ship which dated back to the 17th or 18th century.